The Holy See also opposes all forms of violence and unjust discrimination against homosexual persons, including discriminatory penal legislation which undermines the inherent dignity of the human person. A note on Caribbean slang: The following common pejorative terms that refer to men who have sex with men appear in the report: antiman, battyman, batty bwoy, buggerer, buller, bullerman, chichiman, fish, shemale. Countries that use the US dollar Michaela, a 22-year-old artist and lesbian from Grenada, recalled her teacher’s unwillingness to stop bullying when she was a 16-year old high school student: “when bullying happens, you tell the teachers and they don’t do anything.”[89]. [34], Local and international LGBT organizations have partnered to facilitate LGBTI sensitivity training in the past few years for national police forces in Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Kitts and Nevis, allowing for a more collaborative relationship with police enforcement officials. H.R., (Ser. Human Rights Watch conducted only one group interview with seven gay men in Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. LGBT people can find themselves treated as scapegoats, blamed for social woes such as poverty and AIDS. Fear of isolation led people to go to extraordinary lengths to conceal their sexual orientation, including by entering heterosexual marriages. The former Dr. Len Ishmael demitted the office at the end of December 2013. East Caribbean Dollar coins Exchange yours now. All countries featured in this report are members of the Organization of American States and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). In the countries included in this report, populations are small and social networks insular. See Appendix V for further detail concerning relevant legislation. [45] “Activist threatened for challenging Trinidad and Tobago sodomy law,” Washington Blade, March 14, 2017, Several interviewees reported that police asked them inappropriate, intrusive questions about their sex lives. And Christian communities are influential agents of socialization, shaping social attitudes, and moral codes. [134] Human Rights Watch interview with Peter, Dominica, February 21, 2017. He then walked past Charles and Emily and threatened them along the lines of “Batty-men must die” or “you are close to death”–Charles could not hear precisely. 20, para. The Eastern Caribbean Dollar is tied to the US Dollar … I have to see my uncles - who beat me - and my mother almost every day.[72]. [118] Human Rights Watch interview with Bill, Antigua and Barbuda, February 8, 2017. This means that existing rape laws fail to protect people against non-consensual anal or oral sex. At the 38th OECS Authority Meeting in January 2004, the Secretariat was mandated to have the two companies expressing an interest in producing the common passport (De La Rue Identity Systems and the Canadian Banknote Company[33]) make presentations at the next (39th) Authority Meeting. All states covered in this report, with the exception of Barbados, are members of the OECS. The Secretariat consists of four main Divisions responsible for: External Relations, Functional Cooperation, Corporate Services and Economic Affairs. The sexual orientation of a person whose primary sexual and romantic attractions are toward people of the other sex. The court declared that the definition of ‘sex’ in the constitution included ‘sexual orientation,’ protected by the principles of equality and non-discrimination. [127], Some, frustrated with the lack of police support, expressed a need to take matters into their own hands by fighting back in self-defense against attacks and aggression. She identified one of the perpetrators who denied that he was involved. In some countries, activists have participated in LGBT awareness training for law enforcement agents. 133. In these tightly-knit communities and interconnected social worlds, the fear of rejection by family and community runs deep. CariFLAGS has as its main stated purpose to: “build a regional LGBTI movement in the Caribbean by strengthening local leadership and organizations, developing shared strategies for social change, coordinating challenges on LGBT rights issues in the courts, addressing underserved needs and groups, and supporting safe environments at the community level.”[33], Another civil society group active in the region is the Eastern Caribbean Alliance for Diversity and Equality (ECADE), an umbrella body for human rights groups within the small countries of the Eastern Caribbean, such as Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Martin. Lick a shot inna a lesbian head! All seven states covered by this report criminalize same-sex intimacy between consenting persons. The anus is for shitting. This report was reviewed by Graeme Reid, LGBT rights program director; Daniel Wilkinson, Americas division managing director; Aisling Reidy; and Joseph Saunders, deputy program director. 2807) and 2014 (AG/RES. [77] Human Rights Watch interview with Augusten, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, February 18, 2017. Out of the seven countries considered in this report, only Dominica (1993), Grenada (1978) and Barbados (1982) have ratified the American Convention but neither Grenada nor Dominica recognize the jurisdiction of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. [132] Human Rights Watch interview with Arthur, St. Kitts and Nevis, February 4, 2017. She eventually went to the hospital and received counseling.[136]. Develop plans and allocate adequate resources to ensure systematic documentation and monitoring of human rights violations of LGBT people, including through c0llection of accurate data on acts of violence and discrimination due to real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. The Organization of American States (OAS) and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) have also taken steps to address human rights violations perpetrated against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) persons in the Americas. [100] Human Rights Watch interview with Ernest, Barbados, February 11, 2017. The UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights has noted that: The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has explicitly stated that article 2.2 of the ICESCR, which prohibits discrimination in the exercise and enjoyment of the rights guaranteed under the covenant, includes discrimination based on sexual orientation. CRC/GC/2003/3 (2003), para. Ct. All seven full members are also the founding members of the OECS, having been a part of the organisation since its founding on 18 June 1981. Thomas, a 34-year-old gay man from St. Lucia, described how his mother wavered between acceptance and rejection, allowing him to stay, and then throwing him out. He described his fear as so disturbing that after any given school day, he would return home and go over each thing he could do in a more masculine way. A person born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not seem to fit the typical definitions of “female” or “male.”. Is now a good time to buy East Caribbean dollars? Medical research suggests that poor health outcomes in LGBT populations are in part the result of persistent stigma directed toward them. 11 and 12 of the Covenant), UN Doc. It is not only random strangers who perpetrate violence against LGBT people. [34] See website of Eastern Caribbean Alliance for Diversity and Equality, (accessed June 13, 2017). All non-current coins were demonetized in January 1997. I experienced many ways of self-harm, cutting myself and also a suicide attempt. This left him feeling unstable, insecure, and at times desperate and suicidal: Alanis, a 23-year-old trans woman from Dominica, told Human Rights Watch about her ongoing experience with homelessness and violence within her home due to her gender identity: Toby, a 38-year-old gay man in St. Lucia, recalled his extreme experience of exclusion and ostracism within the home, which drove him to several suicide attempts: Erika, a 23-year-old lesbian from St. Kitts and Nevis, told Human Rights Watch that within her community prejudice runs deep and people openly speculate as to whether her son will be gay because he is being raised by a lesbian. The sexual orientation of a woman whose primary sexual and romantic attraction is toward other women. Such assessments should be strictly voluntary, provide options for anonymity and other protections for participants’ identities, and be conducted in ways that respect the privacy and dignity of LGBT individuals. She said: Alanis, a 23-year-old a trans woman from Dominica, recalled a series of violent attacks on her between 2009 and 2017. People may be completely in the closet (not admitting their sexual orientation to anyone), completely out, or somewhere in between. It also performs the role of spreading responsibility and liability in the event of natural disaster. The British Virgin Islands was the first associate member, joining on 22 November 1984 and Anguilla was the second, joining in 1995. In 2008 the heads of the OECS also received a request from Venezuela to join the grouping.[28]. [87] See:, [88] According to the most recently available census data for Dominica (2005 census), Grenada (2001 census), and St. Lucia (2010 census) these three countries, of the seven covered in this report, have the largest Catholic constituencies. The Barbados Dollar is subdivided into 100 ... Barbados replaced the British West Indies Dollar with the Eastern Caribbean Dollar. The report outlines the effects of these laws on the lives of people most affected by them: The report also refutes the claim that these laws originate in values traditional in former colonies, or reflect deep seated national interests, showing instead that these “Made in Britain” laws were imposed by colonial authorities informed by racist stereotypes and colonialist fears of native sexuality. The ECSC can only accept cases that have already been considered by the high court of a member state, and thus effectively serves as a supreme court for the OECS. However, BDs$ is used to distinguish the BBD from other dollar currencies. [153] Access to the right to health must be on a non-discriminatory basis and discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is prohibited. In college, there are so many of us. Interviewees described being stabbed, struck, pelted with bottles and bricks, beaten, slapped, choked and, in one instance, chased with a harpoon. I never spoke about it.”[78]. In addition to the support from the Antillean parliament, Saba also required a dispensation from the government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an associate member of the OECS. And when my grandmother heard about it she came for me. Francisco Berreta, the Columbia Law School David W. Leebron Fellow in the LGBT rights program of Human Rights Watch, was the primary researcher and author of this report. The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) is a regional group of nations that encourage common policy and economic goals. [139] Core treaties—including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and the American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)—have been interpreted by courts and authoritative treaty bodies to ban such discrimination, as have a variety of other international instruments and sources of law. As noted above, many interviewees told Human Rights Watch that police officers question LGBT individuals in a degrading manner about their sexual orientation, detracting attention from the crimes they are there to report. Investigate all allegations of abuse or threats against individuals on grounds of gender identity or sexual orientation, and ensure fair and impartial investigations of the complaints that hold perpetrators accountable to the fullest extent of the law. Also, view East Caribbean Dollar to Canadian Dollar currency charts. Compare money transfer services, compare exchange rates and commissions for sending money from United States to Antigua & Barbuda. [35] As the CARICOM Passport was first introduced in January 2005 (by Suriname) then the idea of the OECS Passport was abandoned. The currency code for East Caribbean Dollar is XCD, and the currency symbol is $. The list of currency pair given below shows today's [12/13/2020 UTC] exchange rate of XCD against world's most popular economies/currencies. The OECS functions in a rapidly changing international economic environment, characterised by globalisation and trade liberalisation which are posing serious challenges to the economic and social stability of their small island members. Indeed, for many the taunts were so commonplace that they did not deem it worthy of mention to Human Rights Watch researchers. A lot of people are afraid, because of incidents that happened. She said: “I heard a group yelling “bunfire pun battyman” [set her on fire]. They were afraid of the negative consequences of being identified or perceived as LGBT. [35] For example, the Royal Barbados Police Force embarked on sensitivity training regarding the LGBTI community with the intention of bringing Barbados closer to its international human rights commitments. Dominica, Sexual Offences Act 1998, sec. Work consistently and systematically with these organizations to develop sensitization and human rights training, and collaborate with them to identify and document incidences of violence. A decade later, many popular dancehall songs reiterated the message to kill and maim lesbians and gay men. [50] “A MANDATE TO ACT, Findings from a Poll on Public Attitudes to Sexual and Reproductive Health, Abuse, Violence and Discrimination,” UNAIDS Caribbean, June 1, 2015, 14; Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Addendum, A/HRC/18/15/Add.1, September 22, 2011, para. [51] “Confusion over buggery law, Barbados Today, November 21, 2014. (accessed June 13, 2017). [62] Human Rights Watch interview with Florence, Barbados, February 12, 2017. Why act so nough? Nicholas, a 20-year-old gay man from St. Kitts and Nevis, said that he recurrently experienced suicidal thoughts and even once tried to commit suicide. The Reverend Philip J. Bené, J.C.D. Adopt a program to increase public awareness of the human rights principles of non-discrimination and equality. Jason, a 40-year-old gay man from Barbados, said: As noted above, one interviewee, a 20-year-old gay man from St. Kitts and Nevis, conveyed the general sentiment about life for LGBT people on the islands when he said: “I have to leave to be me.”[64]. Diplomatic missions of the OECS do not represent the associate members. The remaining two member states, Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands, would not have participated immediately, but would have requested time to consider the issue further. Like other former British possessions in the Caribbean, the Barbados coat of arms has a helmet with a national symbol on top, and a shield beneath that is supported by two animals. School bullying is ubiquitous and can affect anyone. The way a person’s sexual and romantic desires are directed. [37] Among the elements of the project was the creation of a technical committee for a draft OECS Economic Union Treaty. It is the Monetary Authority for a group of eight island economies namely - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St Vincent and the Grenadines. ‘And it has the effect of stigmatizing individuals who are queer and really promoting discrimination against them.’”). Almost all interviewees reported being routinely ridiculed, harassed, threatened, and verbally abused based on their real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. [Instead] they make fun of me. The East Caribbean dollar is subdivided into 100 cents (singular: cent; symbol: ¢ or c). [21], None of the prospective members have become associate members as yet, but Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten do participate in the meetings of the Council of Tourism Ministers[22] (as the Forum of Tourism Ministers of the Eastern Caribbean, along with representatives of Saint-Martin, Saint Barthélemy, Martinique and Guadeloupe).[23]. She recalled an episode when she went on a beach swimming date with a girlfriend in July 2016. The text continued: “When I come back. As we were entering the house, a car pulled out, two persons jumped out….a gun was raised and they tried to pull the trigger, but the trigger did not work. He feared being banished from the church “[b]ecause my sexual orientation [did not change after the exorcism]. Respondents stated that gay men were more susceptible than lesbians to social rejection and physical violence. 14, para. By Thursday I was out of my grandmother’s house. Second, as small island states, they are often overlooked. Wright, an English barrister, was asked by the Colonial Office to draft a criminal code for Jamaica, which could serve as a model for all of the colonies. Yahoo Search Búsqueda en la Web. [20] The United Nations LGBTI Core Group (the Core Group) is a cross regional group of UN member states that includes Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, France, Germany, Israel, Japan, Montenegro, The Netherlands, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, the European Union, and Albania (as an observer), as well as the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, and the nongovernmental organizations Human Rights Watch and Outright Action International. I know many people are going through the same as me. One eastern Caribbean dollar has 100 subunits (cents) and comes in both coin and banknote form. Coins are circulated in denominations of 5, 10, and 25 cents and 1 and 2 dollars. These countries / islands use the Eastern Caribbean Dollar: Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica (Not to be confused with Dominican Republic which has it's own currency), Grenada, Montserrat, St Christopher, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & Grenadines. My assailant left something in the car, I gave it to the police, I didn’t touch it. 34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. A person who does not acknowledge their sexual orientation to others. [144] Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, “Violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex persons in the Americas,” November 12, 2015, pp. Charles described his attacker to police officials and explained that he had never seen him before and had no idea who he was. A 2008 Human Rights Watch report, “This Alien Legacy: The Origins of ‘Sodomy’ Laws in British Colonialism,” traces the history of sodomy laws in former British colonies. She concluded “I can’t be who I am, I have to live in a cocoon.”[137]. They cut my face in all directions. Clearly define “hate crimes,” and ensure that any rape or sexual assault motivated in part by the victim’s sexual orientation or gender identity be included in that definition. [44] In order for the Treaty to have entered into force at least four of the independent Member States must have ratified it by January 21, 2011. If they become more accepting, like having gay people in the congregation, it would be a step in a better direction.” [85], In 2017, the archbishop of the West Indies and Anglican bishop of Barbados, Dr. John Holder, spoke out against violence against LGBT people, stating that every human being must be treated equally. All countries covered in this report are members of the OAS. OECS was created on 18 June 1981, with the Treaty of Basseterre, which was named after the capital city of St. Kitts and Nevis. 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